What about the Thief on the Cross?

My last post (on my discovery of salvation by faith and works) garnered a bit of a response – which is delightful and exactly what I like. One of the questions in response was:

What about the thief on the cross? He had faith, clearly didn’t have any works and yet that faith alone was enough to save him.

This is a question I’ve been asked a couple of times and one I would have asked of any Catholic in the past so I thought it was worth addressing.

Tiziano Vecellio (Titian), Christ and the Good Thief, 1566 (Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna)

First up, the passage in question:

One of the criminals who were hanged railed at him, saying, “Are you not the Christ? Save yourself and us!” But the other rebuked him, saying, “Do you not fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we are receiving the due reward of our deeds; but this man has done nothing wrong.” And he said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.” And he said to him, “Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise.” (Luke 23:39-43)

But did the Thief really not have any good works? (Many thanks to the wonderful Monica for finding this quote!)

Look more closely at what the good thief did. First, he rebuked a sinner, someone who was railing against Jesus. Second, he accepted responsibility for his own sin. Third, in the midst of all these people in agony, he turns to Jesus and in front of all these accusers says “Jesus remember me when you come into your kingdom”. He confessed Jesus Christ as a king when everyone else abandoned him. This thief had both faith and good works, by which we are saved through grace.

– Scott Hahn, Seven Last Sayings of Jesus

Most Protestants wouldn’t consider these works really… they’re just faith being expressed, right? So are they works or not? 

From a Catholic perspective, the answer is definitely yes. When Catholics speak of faith, they mean it in the specific sense of belief, “an act of the intellect, prompted by the will, by which we believe what has been revealed…” Anything we do, therefore, isn’t faith. It should be an expression of – and motivated by – faith but it isn’t faith itself. And clearly, the Thief does stuff: he acknowledges his sin, rebukes a sinner and proclaims Jesus as the Saviour of sinners.

Now in this case, the Catholic doesn’t have to prove from this text that these works contributed to the Thief’s salvation. The text itself is silent on how the Thief is saved; it only affirms that he is. But to use this text as an argument for faith alone (sola fide),  the Protestant needs to prove that there are no works evident whatsoever. Otherwise we’d just have another example of someone who had faith and did works and we’re no clearer about what did (or didn’t) save them.

So are they works? From a Protestant perspective, I think we can safely say… yes, probably. While confessing his sins is part of “having faith” for Protestants, rebuking sinners and proclaiming Christ (i.e. evangelising) aren’t. How can I say that? As a Protestant, I couldn’t imagine faith without repentance but could imagine someone with real faith who didn’t rebuke or evangelise others if only because they didn’t have an opportunity.

It could be argued that the Thief is only indirectly evangelising because really, he’s only addressing Jesus. I don’t entirely buy that but still, that leaves rebuking the sinner, which is definitely a work of love. (In fact, Catholics list it under their Seven Works of Spiritual Mercy.) So we have to admit that there is more than just faith going on here; there are works too.

And those works, however small, are enough to disqualify this text from being an argument against salvation by faith alone. It doesn’t necessarily mean that sola fide is false, only that it cannot be proven from this text.

William Bourguereau, A Soul Brought to Heaven, 1878

Now, when I first heard this, I thought that was a bit rich. They didn’t really count as good works did they? I mean, they were so small! But it’s important to understand what Catholics do – and don’t – mean by good works. We don’t mean you have to do a certain number of good things to get into Heaven.

When I first started thinking about this, I thought Catholic works worked a little like proving your identity at the post office to get a passport. Sure, you had to have the application form – that was faith – but then you had to get so many points to prove who you were: 40 points for volunteering at homeless shelter, 20 points for praying the Rosary, 5 points for each evangelistic talk you had with a friend, and maybe a point for each minute you managed to hold your temper (two for each minute if it was with a sibling…), etc. Eventually you got enough points, your application was accepted and voila! A passport to Heaven.

Where exactly I got this outlandish idea, I have no idea. It certainly isn’t Catholic teaching.

No, Catholics understand good works the way Jesus understands them: it’s not about how much you do, how long you do it or how impressive it looks – it’s about what you do with what has been given to you.

For years, I thought the Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard (Mt 20:1-6) was a perfect illustration of salvation by faith alone because all the workers received their day’s pay, regardless of how much they worked. But here’s the thing: they all worked. Invited by the master (grace), they accepted the invitation (faith) and they worked (works) and at the end of the day, were paid what was promised to them (salvation). But all worked.

Or take the Parable of the Talents (Mt 25:14-30). The master gives five talents to one, two talents to another and one talent to a third. The first two invested their talents and managed to double them. They put their gifts to work. But the third hid his in the ground; he didn’t work. When the Master returned, he treated the first two servants exactly the same – even though one had twice as many talents as the other! He said to them both,

Well done, good and faithful servant; you have been faithful over a little, I will set you over much; enter into the joy of your master. (Mt 25:21, 23)

But the third servant, who did nothing with his talent, was cast “into the outer darkness; there men will weep and gnash their teeth.” (Mt 25:30) The important thing in this parable then is not the amount of good works – ten or five or two talents – it’s whether we obeyed.

Niccolò Antonio Colantonio, Crucifixion, c. 1450 (Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid)

What matters is whether our faith is joined with, expressed in and completed by works of love. A faith that isn’t put to work in obeying Christ and loving others is a monstrous and unnatural thing. Both Catholics and Protestants instinctively know this. That’s why the Bible is so clear and unequivocal about this:

“You see that faith was active along with [Abraham’s] works, and faith was completed by works, and the scripture was fulfilled which says, “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness”; and he was called the friend of God. You see that a man is justified by works and not by faith alone… For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, so faith apart from works is dead.” (James 2:22-26)

(By the by, what does it say about a Christian doctrine that the only time it is mentioned in the Bible, it is explicitly condemned? At the very least it would be wise to change our terminology, wouldn’t it? Or I guess we could do what Luther did and just remove James, that “epsitle of straw” from the Bible…)

But the point is that it’s not about tallying up works and prayers and deeds, it’s about “the obedience of faith” (Rom 1:5, 16:26). We take Jesus at His word that “if you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love” (John 15:10), so “work out [our] salvation with fear and trembling” (Php 2:12) because He has “become the source of eternal salvation to all who obey Him. ” (Heb 5:9)

The Good Thief had faith and immediately, he put his faith to work. In bravely rebuking a fellow sinner, humbly confessing his sins and publicly acknowledging Jesus as Lord, his faith – however new – was working – however little – in love and obedience.

That means the Good Thief cannot be a proof for sola fide; all he proves is the all-surpassing love and mercy of Our Crucified Saviour.

And I think that’s quite enough.

But next, I’ll tell you why I think this thief wasn’t just saved by a faith and works but Why the Thief on the Cross Has More Good Works Than We Do


19 responses to “What about the Thief on the Cross?

  1. Hi Laura,
    Really interesting read. This may be a naive question but what exactly is considered ‘works’? I’m just wondering if by works you mean confession/baptism etc, or general good works, or simply repentance (not that repentance is simple, lol). I’m also curious as to what Catholics believe as to when you receive salvation. For example, if someone has faith and does good works throughout their life, thus attaining salvation, but stops before they die, is salvation revoked? I don’t know if that makes sense or not. I briefly went to a Catholic uni and emailed the chaplain a whole bunch of questions but I think he got tired of me and stopped answering, lol.

    • Hey Alie! Thanks for reading and commenting. 🙂 But you well know there’s no such thing as a naive question. Honestly, becoming Catholic is like learning a new language – and constantly translating back and forth. But I think it does help me think, at least.

      Anyway! Good works are deeds or things we do in love. The Joint Declaration on Justification by Lutherans and Catholics described good works as “a Christian life lived in faith, hope and love.” It goes on to say, “When the justified live in Christ and act in the grace they receive, they bring forth, in biblical terms, good fruit.” That’s good works. In some ways it’s quite vague but essentially it’s how we put into practice Christ’s command to love God and each other. Baptism is distinct and isn’t a “good work” as such. Baptism is the means through which we are justified. But justification isn’t a one-off declaration like it is for most Protestants. It’s a process that begins with repentance and faith, leads to Baptism and receiving the Holy Spirit, is followed by growing in faith and love and doing good, requires perseverance to the end, and is completed when the believer is in Heaven with Christ. This is because the Bible says we have been saved, are being saved and will be saved.

      Ok, so this person who essentially falls away? For him, the process began but was interrupted because he turned away from God. Catholics – like in 1 John 5 – distinguish between venial sins and mortal sins. Mortal sins are grave sins which we do, knowing they’re evil and looking God in the face, basically say, “screw you, I’m going to do it anyway.” There is always opportunity for repentance and God never gives up us – but say this person kept rejecting God until they died. Their salvation is not revoked because they never attained it (Php 3:10-14).

      Sorry this was SO long. Let me know if I’m making sense or any other questions you have. Hopefully, I’m going to write more on this so that might help too.

      God bless now and always dear, Laura

    • As for when Catholics believe they are “saved”: Catholics and Protestants use that term differently, and it easily sounds horrible to Protestants, but really the Catholic view is the far more reasonable and merciful proposition in my opinion. Protestants say they are “saved” the moment they have faith in Christ, when they confess Christ and they receive the Holy Spirit.

      But in the Catholic view, the concept of being “saved” doesn’t make any sense unless you’re being saved from something. And what are we being saved from? Eternal death and condemnation is usually what Protestants mean when they speak of being “saved.” And for Catholics — who don’t talk about being “saved” in the way Protestants do — we are saved (from eternal damnation) when we die and stand before Christ, and He saves us, or on the Last Day; when He takes us to His Heaven.

      To Protestants this sounds like, “Egad! You’re mean you don’t know whether you’re saved or not until you die???” But that’s a misunderstanding. As long as we Catholics live in Christ’s grace and partake of the Sacraments and are sanctified by our works as Laura is talking about, have every assurance that we will be saved in the end. We admit that we don’t have absolute assurance — and Protestants hear that and think, “Egad! You’re questioning God’s power to save!” But no, we are admitting our own humanity, acknowledging that we can fall and always have the potential to fall away. Salvation for the Catholic is a road. As long as we stay on it and walk with Christ, we will arrive at the New Jerusalem; and the only way we won’t is if we ourselves turn off the road. Sometimes we stumble — but as long as keep following Christ, He will always heal our bruises and set us back on the road.

      (Oops. Should be a “preview” button! Dear Laura, please delete my screwy comment. 🙂 )

    • And yes, as Laura says, too, there are different modes of speech in the Bible — there is also a sense in which we have been saved (when we are baptized into Christ’s Body and are receive initial justification from our sins) and are being saved (as we are continually justified and sanctified over the course of our lives).

      • Thanks guys, that makes a lot of sense. It ‘s interesting that we’re all doing the same thing anyway. Even if we disagree on whether it’s faith or faith and works that saves us, a genuine faith produces good works/fruit anyway. I had another question but I forgot it…. ummm…Nope, it’s gone. I’ll write again when I remember.

        • Hey Alie, you’re exactly right. We both agree that God graciously saves us thru faith in Christ and that real, saving faith will always bear fruit in love. 🙂 And this sort of faith working in love is evident in both Protestants and Catholics. And even more, we both have the same practical attitude: trust God and step out in faith. It’s part of what makes these arguments and divisions so sad. If you remember your other question, let me know! Thanks again for commenting and asking questions. I really do appreciate it. 🙂

  2. hi laura,
    its craig, leigh’s fiance. been keeping up witth some of this as leigh reads your blog.
    i don’t think anyone disagrees that as a christian you have to do works. but salvation itself is faith alone and then good works. ephesians 2:8-10 holds the tension quite well. salvation is by grace/faith, THEN works. its not they are a whole inasmuch salvation allows one to do good works.

    i think good works are held up to highly as its own thing as well. whats important is doing the works in a relationship with God. (first greatest commandment first then second). because as isaish 64:6 says “and all our righteous acts are like a menstrual garment;”
    it is very important to be first right with God before works enter into the equation.

    something interesting that Jesus says as well, is that condemnation is based upon belief “Jn 3:18 Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because he has not believed in the name of God’s one and only Son.” john 3:16 also talks about it being faith that saves you.

    so one important point is to distinguish between faith and works, they are separate things.

    the james passage i think is talking about a different kind of faith, talking about the faith that is without deeds. that faith is compared to demons believing God exists, but clearly they aint saved. Romans 10:9 shows us that salvation is about declaring Jesus as Lord. i.e. faith that the rest of the bible talks about includes this idea, where as james definiton of faith does not. (he was probably talking to some butt lazy christians, similar to the ones talked about in romans 6 that just wanted to keep on sinning)

    something else that ephesians 2:8-10 brings up is the idea of even faith is a gift. so the question becomes who does slavation belong to? us or God? If its God then the question becomes can God lose a sinner-if we want to talk about being continually saved.

    Jn 6:39 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I shall lose none of all that he has given me, but raise them up at the last day

    point being Jesus and God save, nothing we do changes that outcome, works or not. although it would be impossible to be christian and not do something about it-cf holy spirit and conviction.

    • Hey Craig!

      Thanks for taking to read my blog and to comment as well. I really do appreciate it. 🙂

      All I can say is that I completely agree and what you have written about faith coming first, and “what’s important is doing the works in a relationship with God. (first greatest commandment, then second)” is what the Catholic Church teaches. The Council of Trent declared that “faith is the beginning of human salvation, the foundation, and the root of all Justification; without which it is impossible to please God, and to come unto the fellowship of His sons…” I’m writing a post at the moment about where I think Catholics and Protestants begin to disagree over this issue but absolutely, Catholics believe that faith comes before works. Works are the necessary consequence of faith but without faith, we have nothing – no matter what we do. And James is definitely talking about a workless faith, where people say they have faith but dishonour the poor. But how does that mean his point isn’t valid?

      And I also agree that faith is gift by God’s grace – and so are our works. The Church teaches we are saved BY GRACE, through faith and works. We can have faith by grace and we can do works by grace. But that does lead us into another question of predestination and perserevance of the saints… which is a whole other kettle of fish! For what it’s worth, I think the Bible affirms both God’s complete sovereignty and human free will – and how on earth they fit together, I have no idea.

      I’ll continue on your next comment. 🙂

  3. Ezekiel 11:19 also brings out the tension of works and salvation.

    Eze 11:19 I will give them an undivided heart and put a new spirit in them; I will remove from them their heart of stone and give them a heart of flesh.
    Eze 11:20 Then they will follow my decrees and be careful to keep my laws. They will be my people, and I will be their God

    it re-iterates the point that salvation comes first and then good works. not both at the same time and certainly not works before faith.

    also the interpretation of galatians is a bit funny from the previous post. yes they thought you had to be jewish to be saved. but what it means to be jewish is to be justified by the law (works). the very thing that is impossible to do and completely undermines Christ’s death on the cross. the thing Paul is hating on.

    besides, nothing i do post salvation really counts as mine anyway

    1Co 15:10 But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace to me was not without effect. No, I worked harder than all of them —yet not I, but the grace of God that was with me

    anything i do is aided by God’s grace so how can i claim any of it as merit for salvation. it’s all grace, which is by faith-not by works.

    • Ok, part two!

      I like the reference to Ezekiel because it does make it clear works follow a new spirit. Good thing we agree about that! 🙂

      But now the interpretation of Galatians. It is different from the standard Reformed perspective, I’ll grant you but you’re going up against a pretty hefty scholarly consensus that Luther’s reading of Paul had more to do with the historical context of late Medieval Christendom than what the historical evidence says about contemporary Judaism. What the Jews understood as “being Jewish” was not being made righteous by keeping law but having already – by grace – been included into God’s people, keeping that justification through the works of the law. This is the dynamic we see when God’s rescuses His people from Egypt and then gives them the law.

      Although of course there were some legalistic elements in Second Temple Judaism, they had a lively understanding of grace and weren’t trying to justified in the sense of “become righteous” by the works of law but remain as one of God’s covenant people. So I think it’s fair to describe the conflict about “Jewishness” and it certainly isn’t a given that we should read this as a condemnation of all human effort. This understanding of Paul is the Catholic one and in last fifty or so years, increasing numbers of Protestants have come around to it on the basis of the historical and exegetical evidence, so it’s not an outlandish one either!

      And I’ve probably made the point but I’ll reiterate because it’s a common misunderstanding about Catholicism (and one I shared!). Catholics completely agree that anything good you do is aided by God’s grace. But because He is so gracious, those things are merits for salvation – not by any right but because He’s graciously decided that’s the case. The Catechism states, “The merits of our good works are gifts of the divine goodness” and that God is glorified because in crowning our merits, He crowns nothing but His own gifts.

      So yes, it is all grace. Praise God! But why can’t God’s grace work through what we do as well as what we believe?

      Thanks again for commenting and for a great discussion. Please if you have any questions or I’ve explained things badly or you just don’t agree, let me know! 🙂 (Also, you might find the section on Grace and Justification in the Catholic Catechism interesting.)

      God bless you and keep in His love always,

      Laura 🙂

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  5. Hey Laura.

    Just another question I had reading this, how do you respond to other instances in the Bible where Jesus declares people to be saved and no clear instances of work are reported? e.g. Luke 8:9-14 (the tax man who only “beat his breast and said, ‘God, have mercy on me, a sinner’.” and Jesus said that just by showing this faith he “went home justified before God”) or other examples such as Matthew 9:1-2, Matthew 9:20-23, Matthew 9:28 etc (these are all who people who just sought to draw near to Jesus, trusting that he could heal/save them- what I would consider to be an element of faith, not works). Just curious as to your interpretation of these passages

    Also, second question, how do you fit the Nicene creed with the Catholic understanding that salvation is an ongoing process (I think it was Monica who said something along those lines). e.g. the Nicene Creed says “we believe…in one baptism in repentance, for the remission, and forgiveness of sins”. This would therefore seem to support the view that justification and sanctification are separate- that we are saved at the point at which we repent and put our faith and trust in God, (rather than salvation being something that is also dependent on doing things as a Christian).

    Your thoughts?

  6. hey laura thanks for the reply and being willing to talk in a calm way. Other arguements over the internet have dissolved more often than not into anger. I’ll answer by quoting then addressing the quote:

    “The Council of Trent declared that “faith is the beginning of human salvation,”

    i would disagree, faith IS salvation-not the beginning. the idea being once we have faith our names go into the book of life and then we come back to who is it that salvation depends, God or us?

    “The Church teaches we are saved BY GRACE, through faith and works”

    this statement out right contradicts Ephesians
    Eph 2:8 For it is by grace v you have been SAVED, through FAITH—and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God—
    Eph 2:9 NOT by works, so that no one can boast

    Be keen to get your thoughts on this point especially.

    coming back to galatians. The important thing is that NT Wright is a historian and not an exogetical preacher. many preachers disagree with him. interpretation lies more with them. for what its worth the old covenant wasn’t working BECAUSE it required human effort (important point i think). thats why jesus had to come and save us. yes they had grace, but what grace they had (sacrificial system) didn’t save anyone, it just foreshadowed Jesus (cf hebrews).
    Ro 8:3 For what the law was powerless to do in that it was weakened by the sinful nature

    the law is powerless, it needed more than human effort to save.
    paul is very explicit.

    Gal 3:2 I would like to learn just one thing from you: Did you receive the Spirit by observing the law, or by believing what you heard?
    Gal 3:3 Are you so foolish? After beginning with the Spirit, are you now trying to attain your goal by human effort?

    Gal 3:11 Clearly no one is justified before God by the law, n because, “The righteous will live by faith.”

    the spirit guaranteeing our inheritance is gained only through faith. the Galatians did believe and then used works to go the rest of the way for salvation. something you have described:

    “But because He is so gracious, those things are merits for salvation”

    human effort in the passage being equivalent to merits in your statement. regardless of the new perspective on Paul-the statement is very black and white.

    with regards to using the catechism these are my thoughts-if its not in the bible (the idea that is) then this verse comes into effect

    Gal 1:8 But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a gospel other than the one we preached to you, let him be eternally condemned!

    if it reflects an idea brought up in the bible then it might give valid insight. but a completely new idea-let it and the idea giver be eterenally condemned. (basically a challenge to find the idea from the bible).

    one last question and one last potential challenge.

    if there is human effort in salvation-is not Christ death on the cross cheapened-taking away the glory from Jesus.

    challenge: if you do read a gospel in the near future, compare and contrast Pharisees and Catholicism. I’ll be honest-I’ve always found them very similar

    Thanks Laura

    • Hey Craig, thanks for your reply. I do try to keep things on a friendly and charitable level. Luckily, I’ve been blessed with wonderful and faithful Christian friends so often that’s not hard at all. 🙂

      Anyway, I’m not sure what you mean by “faith IS salvation”… faith is faith and will one day pass away. I assume you mean salvation is only by faith, from beginning to end. And the Catholic Church teaches that; faith can never be absent but needs to grow as we love the author and perfector of our faith more and more.

      I actually ended up writing a post on Ephesians 2 so I’ll leave that for now but I’d be interested to hear your thoughts. 🙂

      Ok, NT Wright. I’m sorry I can’t completely let this go. Wright isn’t an historian, he’s a New Testament scholar and theologian. He’s also an ordained minister of the Church of England, a preacher and paster, and until recently, the Bishop of Durham. (Actually, his replacement just got elected as the new Archbishop of Canterbury.) He is more than qualified – in every possible sense – to speak on this. Obviously, some people don’t agree with him. I sometimes don’t agree with him. But suggesting that “interpretation lies more” with the exegetical preachers is both irrelevant and simply begging the question.

      Next, the Old Covenant didn’t work because the blood of animals can’t take away sins and because humanity, in their own efforts, can’t keep the law. The whole argument that the Catholic Church is making is that God, by His grace puts His Spirit in us so “that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit”, which is the second half of Rom 8:3-4 verse you quoted. They’re the grace-works I talked about, not the self-works. The Church is also 100% clear that the only reason any of this is possible at all is because Jesus died for our sins and rose again in glory.

      (I should probably also point out that Catholics believe that when God justifies us He pours out His love into our hearts (Rom 5:5), along with faith and hope, and it is this, what we also call “sanctifying grace” that makes a new creation and righteous before God. It’s like he set up a bank account in our name and then put his money in it. Now, it’s ours – by His grace and mercy and power – to steward in a way but as long as we have that supernatural faith and love in our hearts, we are justified.)

      The good news is that we completely agree that the law is powerless to save and that human effort, without the grace of God, is equally powerless. Our good works, such as they are, are only pleasing to God because He has empowered them and He has freely chosen to reward them. (On a side note, do you believe in rewards in heaven?)

      And you’re right, Paul is absundantly clear that the works of the law are powerless to save and the only thing that matters is “faith working in love” (Gal 5:6).

      Ok, your question: “if there is human effort in salvation – is not Christ death on the cross cheapened – taking away the glory from Jesus?” Clearly, I don’t think so. In fact, I think it’s brings greater glory to Christ! Because He has made us His brothers and sisters in true holiness. He hasn’t just thrown a robe over our dirty clothes, He washes us, adopts us, includes us, shares His very with life. And He transforms us, drawing our whole lives into our salvation as He takes us from glory to glory – His glory.

      As for the challenge? Craig, that was a bit much. To compare Pharisaism to Catholicism? I became a Catholic through rediscovering the gospels because what Jesus teaches in the gospels isn’t sola fide and it isn’t Protestantism. He condemns hypocriscy in the strongest possible terms but equally commands His followers to have faith and to love God and neighbour. Catholics aren’t trying to earn our salvation and we’e not trying to impress anyone. We’re just trying to follow Jesus.

      Fortunately, I know Protestants are also trying to do the same. Yes, we disagree about things and they’re important. But I also know that you love our Lord, and that makes you a brother. Thanks again for responding and engaging. 🙂

      God bless and keep you,


  7. ps, its possible the couple of idea i bought up around NT wright could start a whole new conversation-for the moment if its ok with you, i’d rather leave that discussion alone of interpretation. one thing at a time, I am sadly a guy…aka limited

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